formal Survey

Sychronizeds Determination of Several Thermodynamic Quantities: T, ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S°

Submitted by: Feldan S. Villarta

Submitted to: Mrs. Gloria Jesusa D. Baltazar

Chemistry 73 (Laboratory)

September 11, 2014

Simultaneous Dedication of Several Thermodynamic Volumes: K, ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S°

Feldan P. Villarta


The solubility product regular,  Ksp​,  is the balance constant for any solid material dissolving within an aqueous solution. It symbolizes the level when a solute dissolves in solution. A much more a element dissolves, the bigger the Ksp value it has.

In this experiment, a process of a sparingly soluble sodium in drinking water is researched. From the solubility information at various temperature ranges, the changes in standard enthalpy, standard entropy, and normal free energy had been established. II. THEORETICAL HISTORY

The reaction that may be studied in this experiment is the dissolution of borax in water. " Borax” is known as a naturally occurring chemical substance; it is in fact the most important supply of the factor boron, and it has been intended for many years as being a water treatment agent. Borax is a alternatively complicated ionic salt containing the chemical formula Na2B4O7•10H2O (Petrucci, 2007). When it dissolves, it dissociates as follows:

Na2B4O7 • 10H2O(s) 2Na(aq) + B4O5(OH)42(aq) & 8H2O(l) rnx (1)

The solubility item expression with this system is drafted below. Ksp = [Na]two [B4O5(OH)42] (2) To determine a worth for the solubility merchandise, a method has to be found to assay either the amount of sodium ion, or perhaps borate ion, in the sample mixture. The initial equilibrium appearance, and well-balanced solubility sense of balance reaction, contributes to a hassle-free way to show either ion in terms of the other, in order that it is possible to define Ksp in terms of possibly the concentration of salt ion, or concentration of borate ion (Chang, 2010). A series of alternatives, based on the first balanced solubility equilibrium equation, gives the ideal Ksp, manifestation defined in terms of the borate ion simply: [Na] sama dengan 2 [B4O5(OH)42]

K = [ (2 [B4O5(OH)42] ) ]2 [B4O5(OH)42]

Ksp = 5 [B4O5(OH)42]3 (3) Finding the attentiveness of borate ion, in just about any sample any kind of time given temperatures, leads directly to a value for solubility merchandise (Ksp) in which temperature. The concentration of tetraborate (B4O5(OH)42) can be determined through titration. Tetraborate is a fragile base, therefore it can be titrated with a strong acid (Brown, 2012). The response for the titration is usually written as follows:

B4O5(OH)42– (aq) + a couple of H3O+ (aq) + INGESTING WATER (l)  4 H3BO3 (aq) (4)

The volume from the acid applied can then be accustomed to calculate the concentration of tetraborate using the formula written in the next page.

Where Mtetraborate = concentration of tetraborate

(M back button V)acid sama dengan the product in the concentration and volume of the acid used

Vtetraborate = amount of borax applied

From the Ksp value, the Gibb's energy can be computed The relationship involving the Ksp and Gibb's strength is:

∆G° = -RT lnKsp (6)

where L is the gas constant (8. 314 J/K. mol) and T is a absolute heat (Brown, 2012). From the meaning of Gibb's energy the following may be written:

∆G° = ∆H° - T∆S° (7)


Clearly, ∆G° is a function of temp. A plot of ∆G° vs T should deliver a straight line with a incline of -∆S° and intercept of ∆H°. Likewise, a plot of ln T vs 1/T should also make a straight collection with a slope of -∆H°/R and intercept of ∆S°/R (Chaka & Madhugiri, and. d. ). III. METHODOLOGY

A. Materials/Apparatuses/Chemicals

The materials/apparatuses/chemicals that were utilized in this experiment are the following: analytical equilibrium, volumetric flask, stirring rod, thermometer, beaker, hot platter, iron band, iron stand, test conduit,...

References: Dark brown, T. ou. al. (2012). Chemistry: The Central Technology. 12th male impotence. United States of America: Pearson Education, Incorporation.

Chaka, G. & Madhugiri S. (n. deb. ) Perseverance of Thermodynamic Quantities to get a Chemical Reaction

Chang, Ur. (2010). Hormone balance. 10th male impotence. 1221 Avenue of the People in the usa, New York: McGraw- Hill Companies, Inc.

Petrucci, Rob H., ain al. General Chemistry: Guidelines and Modern day Applications. Top Saddle Riv, NJ: Prentice Hall 2007.

Weisstein, Electronic. W. (2014).  Roundoff Mistake.  Retrieved Come july 1st 22, 2014 from the world-wide-web:

Try things out 17. Thermodynamics of Borax Solubility

Biochemistry and biology 212 Lab: Simultaneous Determination of A number of Thermodynamic Amounts: K, ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S°



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